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" The History of our Universe and its Physics ".

Tom Gehrels (Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona)



A wonderful thing happened when I started using an equation left by Chandrasekhar, of which he believed it might go far. It leads to our universe being a member of a quantized system of universes. In that trial-and-error evolutionary system, they survive only with the critical mass and physics of our universe. The analysis is simple, strictly from the equation.

   Now the question is how our universe originated from that system. The second part of the discussion is based on experience with the interstellar medium (ISM) and with star formation on 1019-times smaller scales. In our astronomical environment everything appears to age and decay; even the proton may have a limited half-life. The decay products of all the universes expand eventually into the inter-universal medium (IUM), and that causes the new universes to start uniformly, with small variations due to the local distribution of galaxy clustering. Recognition of the uniformity and galaxy clustering in 3-K-background observations brings proof for this history. It also indicates that the proto-

universe stayed cool enough so that the galaxy characteristics were not melted away. That is explained by the gravitational energy being used for re-energizing and re-combination of the old decayed photons and sub-atomic particles. This history clarifies several old problems, such as the question why the baryons in our universe amount to only 4%. Furthermore, a "Proton Bang" event appears to have happened near proton density of 1018 kg/m3 at t ~ 10-6 secs with preserved particle properties, instead of the Big-Bang at t = 0. From t ~ 10-6 secs onward, our universe proceeded as in the standard model of particle physics.

   Two papers, "The Cosmos is Quantized and based on the Proton", and "Our Universe began at the Proton Level", as well as two 2007 references are in <www.lpl.arizona.edu/faculty/gehrels.html>.